Aseptic Food Products: Defined as either HIGH ACID or LOW ACID. This basically is defined by its pH. If a finished product pH is 4.6 or above, it is considered LOW ACID. If the product is below 4.6, it is HIGH ACID.
Balance Tank: This is a smaller open top tank of un-sterile product that keeps the system full of product at all times. If the level in this tank drops, more product is piped in to keep the level up.
Basic Weight: Refers to the weight per unit area of film or paper. Typical units are pounds/ream.
Biodegradable: A product has the ability to break down, safely and relatively quickly, by biological means, into the raw materials of nature and disappear into the environment.
Bliss Boxes: The bliss box is a three piece box that is ‘formed’ by a piece of automated machinery. The three pieces of corrugate needed to make this box are shipped flat and separate.
Brix: Is a term used in the food industry to describe the amount of sugar in beverages. The higher the brix, the higher the sugar content.
(Symbol °Bx) is a measurement of the mass ratio of dissolved sugar to water in a liquid. It is measured with a saccharimeter that measures specific gravity of a liquid or more easily with a refractometer. A 25 °Bx solution is 25% (w/w), with 25 grams of sugar per 100 grams of solution. Or, to put it another way, there are 25 grams of sucrose sugar and 75 grams of water in the 100 grams of solution.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound containing two oxygen molecules and one carbon molecule. This gas enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels, solid waste, trees and wood products, and also as a result of other chemical reactions. Carbon dioxide is also removed from the atmosphere when it is absorbed by plants through photosynthesis.
Carbon Footprint: A carbon footprint is the total emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) in carbon equivalents from a product across its life cycle from the production of raw material used in its manufacture, to disposal of the finished product.
-Source: Carbon Trust
Cold Seal: This is the opposite of a hot seal. A cold seal can be identified when the two plies can be pulled apart and only an impression of the seal remains, no tacking of the materials at that point.
Cold Spout Seal: Like a cold perimeter seal, this will leave an impression of a seal, but the material is able to be pulled away from the spout with little or no film destruction.
Cold Vertical Removal Force: The amount of force required to vertically remove the cap from the spout (Given in lbs and kgs and tested at room temperature).
Compostable: A product that can be placed into a composition of decaying biodegradable materials, and eventually turn into a nutrient-rich material.
Cooling: After passing through the regeneration section, the product enters the cooling stage to bring the temperature back down to stop the cooking process (most commonly performed with chilled water).
Cross Section of Film: A cross-sectional diagram of the film’s primary construction (Each layer will have its thickness designated in microns).
Elongation At Break: The amount of stretch the film underwent before the point of break (measured on the tensile test machine).
EVOH: Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Polymer
Extended Shelf Life (ESL): Involves the pasteurization of a product and the transfer to a package in a controlled-atmosphere filler.
Filling Machine: A packaging machine that measures a product from bulk by some predefined value, e.g. volume, mass, or level in a container.
Film Yield: A yield measures the coverage of a film per unit weight. It can be expressed in square inches per pound or meters squared per kilogram (in US or metric units respectively).
Flaps: On boxes where there are four box flaps, these are designated based on their size and order which they are folded in (The minor flaps are normally smaller and are folded in first and the major flaps are larger and are folded in after the minors).
Flow Rate: The rate at which the product is to be delivered to the filler.
Fluorinated Gases: Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are synthetic, powerful greenhouse gases that are emitted from a variety of industrial processes. Fluorinated gases are sometimes used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (i.e., CFCs, HCFCs, and halons). These gases are typically emitted in smaller quantities, but because they are potent greenhouse gases, they are sometimes referred to as High Global Warming Potential gases (“High GWP gases”).
Flutes: The internal core of laminated papers which are laid down in an S pattern to form flutes (Usually used in the construction of cardboard boxes).
FOL Boxes: Full-Over-Lap or FOL boxes can be identified by their major flaps crossing or overlapping each other (FOL boxes come flattened and glued at the joint).
Fold Abrasion: A mark on the bag due to the packing into the carton and is not a defect.
Gauge: A unit of measurement equal to a hundredth of a mil.
Gauge of Film: This is the average nominal gauge of the film.
Glue Flap: The area of a box that overlaps and is glued to partially assemble the box for the customer.
Gravity Dispense: The cap is removed from the bag and a valve is attached to the spout. The bag is then hung in a rack that points the valve downward. Gravity then forces the product to flow when the valve is opened.
Greenhouse Gases (GHG): Greenhouse gases refer to gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. The principal greenhouse gases included; Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, and Fluorinated Gases.
Heating: This is where the product is brought up to a specific temperature as defined by the product.
Inspection Machines: A packaging machine that inspects products, packages or packaging components, for a particular attribute (e.g. size, color, mass), and reject items which fall outside the pre-set values.
Kinetic Coefficient of Friction (COF): The ratio of frictional force to the gravitational force acting perpendicular to the two film surface (The results are expressed as a ratio; Lower COF = more slippery film).
Less Than a Load (LTL): If your product only occupies ¼ of a trailer, the trucking company would take the trailer to a central hub, where your product could be off-loaded (or added to) to make a full trailer going to generally the same location. Once to that general location, the product would be taken off the trailer again and placed on a smaller truck for delivery to its destination.
Life Cycle Analysis: LCA is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by:
- compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases;
- evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases;
- interpreting the results to help make a more informed decision.
Markets: The business of buying and selling a specified commodity.
Maximum Fill Temperature: The maximum product temperature that this fitment is rated for.
Methane (CH4): Methane is a chemical compound containing one carbon molecule and four hydrogen molecules. This gas is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills.
Mil: A thousandth of an inch. Example: A 0.60 mil film is 0.0006 inches in thickness.
Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide is chemical compound consisting of on nitrogen molecule and two oxygen molecules. This gas is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste.
Ocean (Sea Container): Sea containers are similar to PIG containers, but are constructed of heavier steel so they may be stacked much higher on a container vessel.
Optical Density: Used on non-clear films to measure the amount of metal deposited by measuring the light transmission through the film.
Over-The-Road (OTR): The transportation of products over the road by use of trucks.
Packaging: The number of bags that are packed per carton, the approximate weight of that carton when full of bags, the number of cartons that are shipped on a pallet when full pallet quantities are ordered, and the total number of bags that equals per pallet load.
Piggy-Back (PIG): PIG transportation involves a trailer similar to an OTR, but the box is able to be removed from the wheel chassis and placed on a flat rail car.
Poly/EVOH/Nylon (PVN): Used to describe a three ply bag composed of one ply of Poly, one of EVOH, and one of Nylon.
Poly/Nylon Bag (PN): Used to describe a two ply bag composed of Poly and Nylon.
Poly/Poly Bag (PP): Used to describe a dairy bag with two plies of Poly.
Poly/Poly/Metal (PPM): Used to describe a three ply bag composed of two plies of Poly and one of Metal.
Poly/Poly/Nylon Bag (PPN): Used to describe a three ply bag composed of two layers of Poly and one of Nylon.
Product pH: Foods are primarily defined by their finished pH. This is the acidity or alkalinity of the product. In the food industry, the dividing line for what is considered high- and low-acid is the 4.6 mark. A pH equal to or below 4.6 is considered a high-acid food. A pH above 4.6 is considered a low-acid food.
Pump: This pump is responsible for pushing the product throughout the entire filling system.
Pump-Out: This is where the bag has some sort of adaptor type cap that attaches to a hose and pump by a connector. The pump then pulls the product from the bag and delivered to a remote location. Operation of the pump is either automatically controlled by a CO2 pump or by the user operating a manual pump lever.
Puncture Resistance: Performed on an Elmendorf puncture/tear testing machine, and uses a 4″ diameter sample of film to measure its resistance to puncture or impact (Results are in force grams/diameter (4″).
Rail Car: When the product is loaded into a rail car of a train at the rail yard or your plant.
Ream: Equal to 432,000 square inches or 3,000 square feet.
Recycling: The reprocessing of materials into new products.
Regeneration: This heat exchanger section attempts to recover some of the heat energy from the exiting product to pre-heat the product entering the system.
Slash ‘n’ Serve: This is where the bag is cut and the product dumped out of the bag and into another vessel.
Spout/Cap: The fitment combination that is on the bag.
Sustainability: The continuous improvements to current and future practices that will positively affect the economy, society and the environment.
- Is beneficial, safe & healthy for individuals and communities throughout its life cycle;
- Meets market criteria for performance and cost;
- Is sourced, manufactured, transported, and recycled using renewable energy;
- Maximizes the use of renewable or recycled source materials;
- Is manufactured using clean production technologies and best practices;
- Is made from materials healthy in all probable end of life scenarios;
- Is physically designed to optimize materials and energy;
- Is effectively recovered and utilized in biological and/or industrial cradle to cradle cycles.
- Source: Sustainable Packaging Coalition http://www.sustainablepackaging.org
Tensile Strength: The amount of strength required to break a 1″ wide strip of film (Results are in gram force/sq inch).
Vertical Seam Filling: When the seam of the bag runs vertically in the bin.
Viscosity: The resistance to flow; the thickness of a product. High viscosity (high resistance to flow) means the product is thick and low viscosity (low resistance to flow) means the product is thin.